Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavior problem that is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention, restlessness, and impulsivity and, until recently, was diagnosed primarily in children. It had been first thought as Hyperkinetic Disorder of Childhood in 1957 and was often called hyperactivity or hyperactive syndrome until it had been renamed ADHD in 1987. The renaming also represented a shift in focus from hyperactive behavior to the inattention as a major characteristic of this disorder.
The centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates 7 percent of school-age (6-10) children have ADHD, with a ratio of 3 to 1 boys to girls in the United States. White children generally have higher rates of ADHD diagnosis than minority children. The definition of ADHD has broadened in recent years. Now, along with school-age children, ADHD is diagnosed in preschool children, adolescents, and adults, which contributes to the rising prevalence.
The most common treatment that is medical ADHD is by using psychoactive medications, especially ethyl-phenidate (Ritalin) along with other stimulant medications (Cylert, Adderall, and Concerta). Treatment rates have increased enormously in the last few years; in 2004 the Department of Health and Human Services estimated 5 million children ages 5 to 17 were treated for ADHD in 2000-02, up from 2.6 million in 1994. The diagnosis and treatment of ADHD is a lot higher in the United States than in other countries, but evidence suggests that since the 1990s it’s been rising far away as well, for instance, in the uk. بیشتر بدانید