Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavior problem that is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention, restlessness, and impulsivity and, until recently, was diagnosed primarily in children. It had been first thought as Hyperkinetic Disorder of Childhood in 1957 and was often called hyperactivity or hyperactive syndrome until it had been renamed ADHD in 1987. The renaming also represented a shift in focus from hyperactive behavior to the inattention as a major characteristic of this disorder.
The centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates 7 percent of school-age (6-10) children have ADHD, with a ratio of 3 to 1 boys to girls in the United States. White children generally have higher rates of ADHD diagnosis than minority children. The definition of ADHD has broadened in recent years. Now, along with school-age children, ADHD is diagnosed in preschool children, adolescents, and adults, which contributes to the rising prevalence.
The most common treatment that is medical ADHD is by using psychoactive medications, especially ethyl-phenidate (Ritalin) along with other stimulant medications (Cylert, Adderall, and Concerta). Treatment rates have increased enormously in the last few years; in 2004 the Department of Health and Human Services estimated 5 million children ages 5 to 17 were treated for ADHD in 2000-02, up from 2.6 million in 1994. The diagnosis and treatment of ADHD is a lot higher in the United States than in other countries, but evidence suggests that since the 1990s it’s been rising far away as well, for instance, in the uk.
The causes of ADHD are not well understood, although various theories have been offered, including dietary, genetic, psychological, and social ones. In the past 2 decades, medical scientists have reported genetic susceptibilities to ADHD and discovered differences in brain imaging results from people with ADHD and folks without ADHD. Although bio-medical theories of ADHD predominate, what causes ADHD are nevertheless largely unknown. Some contend that even though you will find biological differences between children with ADHD and other children, what exactly is observed could be a reflection of differences in temperament instead of a disorder that is specific.
ADHD and its treatment have already been controversial at least since the 1970s.
Critics have expressed concern with the drugging of schoolchildren, contending that ADHD is merely a label for childhood deviant behavior. Others grant that some children could have a neurological disorder, but maintain that there has been an overdiagnosis of ADHD. Every so often some educators and parents have raised concerns about undesireable effects from long-term utilization of stimulant medications. Child psychiatrists see ADHD as the most childhood that is common disorder and consider psychoactive medication treatment as well established and safe. Parent and consumer groups, such as for example CHADD (Children and Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), tend to support the medical perspective of ADHD.
Since the 1990s there has been a rise that is significant the diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD. Whereas childhood ADHD is usually school or parent identified, adult ADHD appears to be largely self-identified. Some researchers have noted that many apparently successful adults seek an ADHD diagnosis and medication treatment due to learning about the disorder from professionals, the media, or others, and then seeing their very own life problems reflected when you look at the description of ADHD (e.g., disorganized life, inability to sustain attention, moving from job to job). Adult ADHD essay writing for hire remains controversial, however. Many psychiatrists have embraced adult ADHD as a significant problem that is social with claims of tens of billions of dollars in lost productivity and household income as a result of the disorder, whereas critics have suggested it really is “the medicalization of underperformance.”
Sociologists view ADHD as a classic case associated with the medicalization of deviant behavior, defining a previously nonmedical problem as a medical one together with treatment of ADHD as a type of medical social control.
Whereas some have noticed that when a challenge becomes medicalized it is less stigmatized, because its origin is seen as physiological or biomedical in place of as associated with volitional behavior, others point to the social consequences of medicalizing children’s behavior problems. Some have suggested that medicalizing deviant behavior as ADHD individualizes complex social problems and allows for powerful forms of medical social control (medications) to be used. Secondary gain, accruing social advantages of a diagnosis that is medical is also a problem with ADHD. There are reports of adolescents seeking an ADHD diagnosis to gain learning disability status in order to get certain benefits, such as for example untimed tests or alternative assignments. From a sociological view, this is of ADHD is a prime exemplory instance of diagnostic expansion, the widening definition of a recognized diagnosis. For some, ADHD has become deemed a lifelong disorder, with an expanding age range for diagnosis (from preschool to adult) and a lowered threshold for psychoactive medication treatment. It is more likely that an increasing number of individuals are being identified, labeled, and treated as having ADHD although it is possible that the behaviors characteristic of ADHD are increasing because of some kind of social cause.